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Emission values:
SO2 concentration

Limit value: 200 mg/Nm3

Woody biomass-fuelled furnace:

0.0 mg/Nm3

Herbaceous biomass-fuelled furnace:

5.0 mg/Nm3

Did you know?

The boiler in the straw-fuelled unit contains a pipeline of 9 km; this is twice the length of Nagykörút in Budapest. 

/ Biomass / Wood defects

Wood defects


Structural defect: ingrown bark

Inbark is an open or closed, partially or fully ingrown wound, protruding radially inward from the superficies, filled with bark or necrotic tissue.

Tissue defect: heart lesion

Splitting that starts from the pith and runs radially outwards.

Defect of shape: crookedness

Crooked trees are less valuable and produce lower quality in all products made of wood.

Failure caused by pests: sunscald (bark necrosis)

An injury of woody plants characterized by localized death of the tissues and sometimes by cankers and caused when it occurs in the summer by the combined action of both the heat and light of the sun and in the winter by the combined action of sun and low temperature to produce freezing of bark and underlying tissues.

Tissue defects: frost crack

Water in the inner bark and the wood expands and contracts under often significantly fluctuating temperatures forming vertical fractures on the southerly facing surfaces of tree trunks. Frost cracks often act as sites of entry for wood decay organisms, including insects, fungi and bacteria. Timber damaged in this way is unsuitable for use in buildings.

Defect of shape: forks

An axis that gives rise to two or more equivalent axes, which together form sharp angles. Forks can appear on the trunk or on the branches at various times in the life of a tree. A fork on a trunk during formation is a potential defect likely to ruin the straightness of the tree, reduce the length of the trunk, and lead to enclosed bark.

Defect of shape: forking

Irregular growth in relation to forming two or more top shoots.

Structural defect: double pith

Two or more pith is apparent on the cross-section of the stem, surrounded by a partly individual, partly shared annual ring system (caused by forking).

Tissue defect: splashing (red) heartwood

Splashing heartwood is an anomaly with respect to colour and structure. It is an area in red to brown-reddish colour with irregular contours on the cross-section, and usually the outer red heart border does not coincide with the annual rings.

Tissue defects: ring shake

The separation of annual rings on the cross-section.

Structural defect: knots (sound or decayed knots)

Areas of the main stem of a tree in which the base of a branch has been overgrown through diameter growth of the main stem are called knots.

Structural defects: flutes

Flutes are folds or convolutions in the surface, extending upward from the base of the tree. They generally are accompanied by more than normal butt flare and usually include ingrown bark. They appear to be of normal origin, related to wetness and softness of site.

Structural defect: eccentric heart

Deviations of the pith duct from the centre of the cross-section visible in the cross-section

Failure caused by pests:

sapwood decay:  Deterioration of wood by fungi. It can occur in the form of white rot, brown rot or soft rot.

insect damage: Some insects can cause injury and damage to trees and can retard tree growth by defoliating trees or sucking their sap. By boring into the trunk and branches, they interfere with sap flow and weaken the tree structure.

Failure caused by pests: discoloration of sapwood (funghi)

The discoloured sapwood is the result of wound gums and chemicals formed by the plant in an attempt to stop the fungal infection. Can lead to the decay of the wood.